Research & Referencing

A guide for students and staff on referencing, copyright, creative commons and more



Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title webpage. Name website. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx or https://xxxxx

  • If the webpage mentions the month and/or day in addition to a year, this is also mentioned in the reference; in the in-the text citation, only the year is mentioned.
  • Many webpages without a year or date do have a copyright notice at the bottom of the page, after a © sign. This says nothing about the date of publication of the webpage, only about the year of copyright of the entire website. Therefore, in these cases, please write n.d. (= 'no date').
  • When different webpages of a website are accessed, each page with its own URL gets its own entry.


  • webpage on a news website

Allam, L. (2023, March 30). Human rights commissioner’s view of Indigenous voice ‘likely to mislead voters’, five predecessors say. The Guardian. Retrieved April 4, 2023, from https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2023/mar/30/human-rights-commissioners-view-of-indigenous-voice-likely-to-mislead-voters-five-predecessors-say

Parenthetical citation: (Allam, 2023)
Narrative citation: Allam (2023) 

  •  blog post
Kuepper-Tetzel, C. (2023, March 24). Digest #168: Introduction to ChatGPT. The Learning Scientists. Retrieved April 4, 2023, from https://www.learningscientists.org/blog/2023/3/24/digest-168

Parenthetical citation: (Kuepper-Tetzel, 2023)
Narrative citation: Kuepper-Tetzel (2023)




Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Name database. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx or https://xxxxx

  • If no author is mentioned, the reference starts with the title of the article.
  • Databases may provide less or additional information. Try to be as complete as possible, when an article has a number this can be put in brackets after the title.


  • Gale in Context: High School

Stock, J (Ed.). (2014). Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History (Vol. 4). Gale. Retrieved April 4, 2023, from  https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/UUISWJ425957203/SUIC?u=61_alls&sid=bookmark-SUIC&xid=8d3037aa

Parenthetical citation: (Stock, 2014)
Narrative citation: Stock (2014)

Social media


Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description]. Site name. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx of https://xxxx

  • Only link to original posts. Pinterest, for example, does not contain original material but links to existing files. Click on the image to find out the original URL.
  • Copy the content of the message word-for-word, including any different spelling, hashtags and emojis, up to first 20 words.
  • Most text files can display emojis. If this is not possible, please provide a description in square brackets. Full list of emoji names can be found on the Unicode Consortium's website (http://unicode.org/emoji/charts/index.html).
  • If a post includes images, videos, thumbnail links to outside sources, or content from another post (such as when sharing a link), indicate that in square brackets.


  • Facebook

All Saints' College. (2023, April 3). The Junior School carpark and the College oval have been looking a little different lately, with the rapid progression of [Image attached]. Facebook. Retrieved April 4, 2023, from https://www.facebook.com/allsaintscollegewa/posts/pfbid0emmptuikZnrATFUAHDihKymLDe8fU3L2w4t6UY4iEQyp2wBW4pQNrfKKjrkJj3Xfl?__cft__[0]=AZUaIZVTScz4Xc86TSCYY5rBl7Gf6DvaOAmaj44XSmTMzx0dh29kzYfCBPIrKv-eb1fSXwOMdWKQedTdl9gOyVcvRrU4w1IO3fkHwcfhnABSTB8JpHFd1pwiL2kwZjPk-DA39AHxbw_Q2PBXBDGbvAVgQ_RAjlYdX-VtsMTFsLhh6wETu_n9qqp7x1rnM09IzH92DtOEThPGCHw7n-C0UhTo&__tn__=%2CO%2CP-R

Parenthetical citation: (All Saints' College, 2023)

Narrative citation: All Saints' College (2023) 

  • Instagram/ Twitter/ TikTok: 
  • Present the name of the individual or group author in the same way you would do for any other reference. Then provide the Instagram handle (beginning with the @ sign) in square brackets, followed by a period.

All Saints' College [@allsaintscollegewa]. (2023, April 1). Last week, the Year 6 students ventured to The Common at lunchtime to join the Senior School students for some [Photograph]. Instagram. Retrieved April 4 2023, from https://www.instagram.com/p/Cqef0lZtqCo/

Parenthetical citation: (All Saints College, 2023)
Narrative citation: All Saints College (2023)

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