Research & Referencing

A guide for students and staff on referencing, copyright, creative commons and more



How to reference images.

Image from Website

Auschwitz prisoners

Figure 1. Liberation of Auschwitz (Faiola, Eglash & Boorstein, 2015)

Artwork from Website

The Scream by Edvard Munch

Figure 2. The scream (Munch, 1893)

Image from Book

Concave refraction illustration

Figure 3. Concave refraction (Butt & Russell, 2004, p. 53)

Image from Magazine/Journal


Figure 4. Corner shop renovation blueprint. (McMillan, 2015, p. 64)

General Rules

Any image used in your assignment requires a caption. If the image is not your own work it also requires an in-text citation to the original source.


A figure caption should include:

  • The word Figure (below an image) with a capital letter and in italics

  • A number (from 1, in numerical order) followed by a period

  • A title for the figure or brief description of the work

  • An in-text citation for the reference of the source (if not your own work), which includes the Author(s) surname, date and page number for the source if one is present, i.e. (Smith, 2012, p.14)


A table caption should include:

  • The word Table (above a table) with a capital letter

  • A number (from 1, in numerical order)

  • A title for the table in italics

  • The word Note (below a table) with a capital letter and in italics, followed by a period

  • Following the word Note, a phrase starting with Adapted from ...


You must refer to each figure or table in the text of your assignment and highlight what you want your reader to notice:

  • (see Figure 1)

  • Table 2 compares...

  • As Figure 3 indicates...


In your references list, if you got the image from:

  • A BOOK, reference it as you would a quotation from a book

  • A JOURNAL, reference as you would a quotation from a journal

  • A WEB PAGE, reference it as you would a quotation from a web page

Image from Website

Author Surnames, Initials. (Year). Webpage. Retrieved from URL

e.g. Faiola, A., Eglash, R., & Boorstein, M. (2015). The voices of Auschwitz. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/world/2015/01/23/with-fewer-voices-auschwitz-survivors-speak/

In-text: (Faiola, Eglash & Boorstein, 2015)

Artwork from Website

Artist's Surname, Initials. (Year artwork created). Title of artwork [format]. Retrieved from URL

e.g. Munch, E. (1893). The scream [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www.edvardmunch.org/the-scream.jsp

In-text: (Munch, 1893)

Image from Book

First Surname, Initials., & Second Surname, Initials. (Year published). Title of Book. Place published: Publisher.

e.g. Butt, T., & Russell, P., & Grigg, R. (2004). Surf science: An introduction to waves for surfing. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

In-text: (Butt, Russell & Grigg, 2004)

Image from Magazine/Journal

Author’s surname, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of Article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), pages.

e.g. McMillan, A. (2015). Corner shop. Sanctuary, 2015(32), 62-65.

In-text: (McMillan, 2015)


NB: In this example, Sanctuary magazine does not have volume numbers. As a result the year is entered in its place.